ADPCA Journal

The Person-Centered Journal

The Person-Centered Journal (PCJ) is the oldest continuously running person-centered peer reviewed publication in English. It is sponsored by the Association for the Development of the Person-Centered Approach (ADPCA) to promote and disseminate scholarly thinking about person-centered principles, practices, and philosophy.

The Journal is co-edited by Stephen Demanchick and Rachel Jordan, who may be contacted at pcj@adpca.org, and the section of book reviews is edited by Kathryn Moon. Authors interested in submitting manuscripts are welcome to click on Instructions for Authors.

A limited number of advertisements may be made in the Journal at affordable rates. For further information, you may also contact Rachel Jordan at the above address. Please specify whether your business is non-profit.

PCJ is published as a double issue per year. Membership inquiries may be sent to Sarah Solis, ADPCA Membership Coordinator, at membership@adpca.org. All materials contained in the Journal are the property of the ADPCA. If you are interested in reproducing articles, please send your requests to Rachel Jordan.

We welcome enquiries and hope The Person-Centered Journal engages you!

PCJ Archive

The PCJ Archive is an open-access resource that ADPCA is proud to offer to students, academics and practitioners worldwide.

The Archive comprises free downloadable copies of past volumes of the Person-Centered Journal. The two latest issues are available in paper format only. If you are not an ADPCA member and are interested in purchasing a copy, you are welcome to contact Rachel Jordan at pcj@adpca.org.

*The downloadable content requires Adobe Acrobat Reader.

2013, Vol 20, No 1-2
2012, Vol 19, No 1-2
2011, Vol 18, No 1-2
2010, Vol 17, No 1-2
2009, Vol 16, No 1-2
2008, Vol 15, No 1-2
2007, Vol 14, No 1-2
  1. Person-Centered Training and Supervision with Beginning Counselors

    Author: 

    Jo Cohen Hamilton

    Abstract: 

    Although Rogers is a significant influence on current counseling and psychotherapy practice, person-centered therapy is in danger of extinction in the United States. One way to help it grow is by providing quality supervision to students who wish to become person-centered counselors and therapists. This paper introduces a five-factor model of PC training and supervision that is true to Rogers' theory and consistent with current counseling standards.

    Factor 1, communicating the core conditions, is grounded in nondirective communication and the self-actualization principle. A direct application of Rogers' theory of therapy, Factor 1 can be called “counselor-centered supervision.” The remaining four factors communicate trainer/supervisor-centered attitudes.
    Factor 2, training in the core conditions, introduces exercises for enhancing core-condition learning.
    Factor 3, evaluation, encompasses instruction in self-evaluation, supervisor feedback, and complying with external requirements for evaluation.
    Factor 4, supervising theoretical diversity, facilitates congruence in trainees' self-directed theoretical propensities, and
    Factor 5, supervision ethics, asserts PC commitments to the American Counseling Association's (2005) humanistic ethical guidelines and standards of practice.

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  2. Person-Centered Therapy with a Bereaved Father

    Author: 

    Chun-Chuan Wang

    Abstract: 

    This article aims to explore the changing process of a bereaved father who lost his daughter out of the 1999 Taiwan Earthquake. Initially, this father, whom I will call John, greeted me formally and politely, though with implicit distrust. However, in a period of 16 months in which I continually paid visits to the family some long conversations also took place, and John gradually' was willing to trust me. Beyond a recorded in-depth interview with John, I sensed his intense emotions over the loss, and thus invited him for therapy. John finally agreed, and there were seven therapy sessions.
    I worked as a person-centered therapist. In counseling, John chose the topic, issue, and speed, and I followed. I kept field notes for the encounter within 24 hours after each session. The descriptions in this paper came out of the field notes. Two themes - a deeper understanding of John and three major changes in John – emerged from the notes. The three changes were autonomy, flexible views, and feat of retirement. They seem unrelated to each other; however, they are all induced from his grief experience. The application of the person-centered therapy appeared to open a new possibility for the field of grief therapy.

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2006, Vol 13, No 1-2
2005, Vol 12, No 1-2
2004, Vol 11, No 1-2
2003, Vol 10, No 1
  1. Reflections on Reflecting: How self-awareness promotes personal growth

    Author: 

    Sharon Myers

    Abstract: 

    This qualitative study affirms the role of self-awareness in promoting personal growth. Experiences of sixteen graduate students enrolled in a counselor education program that intentionally requires self-reflection, introspection, and interaction were explored. Through written narratives, participants reported that engaging in activities designed to enhance self-awareness served to promote their personal and professional development. Being engaged in an on-going process of introspection allowed participants to effectively follow a path somewhat parallel to that of clients in therapy. Themes emerging from their narratives included heightened awareness of self, recognition of personal potential, enhanced empathy for self and others, and improved interpersonal relationships. Emerging from their focused efforts in self-reflection, participants reported an expanded sense of self and a confidence in their capacity to become successful counselors.

    Enhanced self-awareness, long the hallmark of psychological health across insight-oriented therapies, offers promising direction for counselor education.

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  2. The analyzed nondirectiveness of a brief, effective person-centered practice

    Author: 

    Jeffrey H. D. Cornelius-White

    Abstract: 

    A brief person-centered therapy practice is described in terms of the frequency and categorization of nondirective and directive verbal behaviors using 22 clients and 101 taped sessions during a nine-month period. Empathic following responses (91%) followed by nondirective therapist comments (4%) were the most frequently observed behaviors. The therapist spoke about 4 sentences a minute, comprising approximately 28% of the spoken words during therapy sessions. While person-centered nondirectiveness was found to co-exist with therapeutic effectiveness, a pattern was not found between slight differences in nondirectiveness and outcome measures

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  3. The effectiveness of a brief, nondirective person-centered practice

    Author: 

    Jeffrey H. D. Cornelius-White

    Abstract: 

    This study serves as a replication of earlier findings on the effectiveness of client-centered therapy and a refutation of the need for specificity and directiveness in brief, efficacious treatment. lt also provides a quality low cost model for individual therapists to address the single most stressful aspect of their work, the perception of lack of therapeutic success (Farber & Heifetz, 1982). Using four global indexes, results showed consistent improvement across clients in a college counseling center throughout the weeks of brief therapy, with the most dramatic gains seen within the first four weeks of therapy with virtually every client (97%). The average effect size across outcome measures was 0.97. The research found significant correlations between the various measures, adding to its validity.

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  4. A person-centered approach to the use of projectives in counseling

    Author: 

    Larry Schor

    Abstract: 

    Can the very process of creating stories about pictures and discussing the emergent themes with a trained psychotherapist be helpful in facilitating self-understanding and fostering psychological growth? If so, what are the necessary and sufficient conditions for this process to occur? Following a brief discussion of the fundamental principles surrounding the theoretical construct of apperception, I will explain and advocate for a client-centered approach in the use of projectives to facilitate client self-understanding in a collaborative therapeutic relationship.

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  5. Stella's Stories - Responses to Trauma

    Author: 

    Jill Jones

    Abstract: 

    This article begins with an introduction to trauma responses and a brief comparison of Client-Centered Therapy (CCT.) and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) It then presents three stories written by a former client who had experienced persistent trauma both as a child within her family and as a young adult living under a repressive regime The first two stories describe events from her past and the third offers an example of the lasting effects of her experiences. The article concludes with Stella's and my reflections on the therapeutic process. Stella chose the pseudonyms to protect confidentiality and has given written permission for her material to be published.

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  6. Cultural Influences vs. Actualizing Tendency: Is the person-centered approach a universal paradigm?

    Author: 

    Chun-Chuan Wang

    Abstract: 

    This paper explores the role a culture plays under the Person-Centered Approach (PCA) paradigm, and argues the possibility for the PCA to be applied in a collectivist culture. Taiwan, where eastern philosophies and modernization are intertwined, was long colonized and governed in a dictatorial way. In such a context, whether the principle of the PCA is applicable is challenging. In this paper- both the challenges of Chinese culture and the historical and political aspects of Taiwan are reviewed. Additionally, social context and the PCA are contrasted from a perspective of being an individual in a collectivist culture. The PCA’s position is mirrored by some eastern philosophies, and the paper argues that a Taiwanese's natural tendency exists beneath the vicissitude of social context. Taiwanese culture plays a role of blocking people's actualizing tendency. The paper highlights the challenges of some particular cultural blocks. When a growth-promoting climate is created, persons get to experience it. More inner freedom develops, and the natural tendency directs the person to self-actualization.

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  7. An evolutionary shift and emerging heroines/heroes

    Author: 

    Peggy Natiello

    Abstract: 

    Evidence increasingly points to a global paradigm shift that is rapidly unfolding among us and causing grief, fear and confusion. The shift involves an entire reordering of the prevailing egocentric way of seeing and minding, and has enormous consequences for social, political, behavioral, environmental norms underlying our culture's construction. This paper considers the difficulties of moving from a reductionistic view of the world to a more unitary view. The writer looks at the qualities of persons identified by spiritual leaders and social theorists as having the vision and courage to lead us forward. She reflects on attitudes of the person-centered approach as one clearly defined technology that can facilitate global dialogue and a shift in worldview.

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2002, Vol 9, No 2
  1. Empathetic communication for conflict resolution among children

    Author: 

    Jeff L. Cochran

    Abstract: 

    This article presents an empathy-focused approach to conflict resolution among children that is applicable in schools and other settings. The authors illustrate the approach with a case example and with role definitions for speakers, listeners, and facilitators. The authors assert that complete communication (having children in conflict listen to one another and then empathically respond to one another without judgment or bias) is a highly effective and powerful means to conflict resolution. Important interpersonal and intrapersonal benefits include: increased self-efficacy and self-reliance, increased respect for self and others, increased empathy and emotional maturity, and increased skills in developing meaningful friendships. Further, this model may help prevent school violence resulting from children feeling ostracized and unheard. Additional applications are also discussed.

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  2. The wisconsin watershed - or, the universality of CCT; In Memory of John Shlien

    Author: 

    Lisbeth Sommerbeck

    Abstract: 

    This paper argues that the major reasons for the ambiguous and disappointing results of the Wisconsin Project were the failure of the researchers to take client motivation into account and failure of the therapists of the project to respond on a level of concreteness that matched the client's level of expression. The paper asserts that correcting for these two factors leads to the major hypothesis of the Wisconsin Project being, after all, true: Client-centered therapy does effect therapeutic change in persons diagnosed with schizophrenia. This result strengthens the hypothesis that client-centered therapy is a universal therapy.

    John Shlien contributed in many ways to the author's critique of the Wisconsin Project. The paper is also the history of his contribution.

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2002, Vol 9, No 1
2001, Vol 8, No 1-2
  1. Dialogical and person-centered approach to psychotherapy: Beyond correspondences and contrasts, toward a fertile interconnection.

    Author: 

    Grigoris Mouladoudis

    Abstract: 

    This manuscript compares Dialogical therapy which is based on Buber's philosophy, with Person-centered approach (PCA) to therapy which is based on Rogers's theory of therapeutic relationships. From the comparison between them, I suppose that Dialogical psychotherapy and PCA represent two separate branches with differences mainly in their theoretical framework but with similarities in their therapeutic practice. Finally discussed are their relation to postmodern thought and constructivist principles and the possibilities for their complementary implementation.

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  2. Nondirective client-centered therapy with children

    Author: 

    Kathryn A. Moon

    Abstract: 

    This paper describes how the nondirective altitude, client-centered theory and the three attitudinal conditions inform and become evident in this therapist’s psychotherapy work with children. It is asserted that the Rogerian attitudinal conditions are sufficient regardless of whether or not the client articulates and understands his or her feelings. Two of Virginia Axline's principles for child therapy are described as being somewhat in contrast with nondirective client-centered theory.

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  3. Psychological well-being and intrapersonal congruence of women incest survivors participating in a person-centered expressive arts workshop

    Author: 

    Anne Geronimo

    Abstract: 

    This study investigated the effect on psychological well-being and intrapersonal congruence for women incest survivors, engaged in ongoing group psychotherapy, who participated in an Expressive Arts Workshop. The Expressive Arts Workshop utilized a person-centered approach. This approach invited each participant to explain what her art, music, and movement experience was like without interpretation from others. After a participant finished explaining what seemed important to her, group members were encouraged to focus on internal feelings related to what they had witnessed and were invited to share those internal reflections. The results of this study demonstrate that using person-centered expressive arts increases psychological well-being and intrapersonal congruence of adult women incest survivors. Thus, person-centered expressive arts used in conjunction with group psychotherapy can be effective in enhancing psychotherapeutic outcome.

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  4. A structured learning exercise in person-centered empathy within a counselor training program

    Author: 

    Jo Cohen Hamilton

    Abstract: 

    The structured exercise in empathic listening is designed to provide counselor trainees with an intensive and deliberate focus on the person-centered empathic process. By far the single most curative factor identified in counseling process and outcome research, empathy deserves lo be a key focus of counselor research and training. Current psychotherapy outcome research estimates of empathy's variance in effecting client positive change occur in the 40% range. This learning exercise is decidedly a highly effective tool for enhancing counselor's capacities to practice empathy; with minimal, if any observable adverse effect on student-selected participants. Qualitative findings from more than 200 counselor trainees over a ten year period, along with a sub-sample of 23 trainees' quantitative results point to the value of the empathy exercise as an especially useful method in counselor empathy training. Experience with the large number of exercises being conducted by trainees suggests that rare instances of a need for one-on-one supervision do occur; and that therefore, the trainer-supervisor must be mindful of the progress, process, and outcome of each case. In-class periodic assessments of general progress, along with individual student meetings and initiation of follow-up as needed are recommended.

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2000, Vol 7, No 2
  1. Empathic understanding grows the person

    Author: 

    Fred Zimring

    Abstract: 

    A new framework will be offered to answer questions about: 1) Why psychotherapeutic change occurs and why empathy has the effect it does; and 2) What are the targets of empathic understanding?

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  2. "Counselling as a social process": A person-centered perspective on a social constructionist approach

    Author: 

    Ivan Ellingham

    Abstract: 

    This paper presents a critical examination from a person-centered perspective of an approach to counseling influenced by the social constructionist thought of Kenneth Gergen. The general postmodernist character of such social constructionism is considered and critiqued, as are certain implications for counselor training and practice. The position is taken that any attempt to introduce social constructionist ideas into the framework of person-centered counseling should be done in a way that does not compromise the fundamental vision of Carl Rogers, its main architect.

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  3. Client-centered therapy: The challenges of clinical practice

    Author: 

    Elizabeth Freire

    Abstract: 

    From the realization that there is a great gap between the theory of client-centered therapy and its practice, the authors aim to investigate the difficulties and the challenges which arise in the client-centered therapists clinical practice. The therapist's trust in the client's actualizing tendency, indispensable to the success of the therapeutic process, is not attained only through a theoretical knowledge of client-centered therapy. Indeed, it is necessary that the therapist has herself experienced the process of therapeutic change promoted by this approach. The authors analyze the elements of change that need to be experienced by the therapist of a successful client-centered practice. Stages in the therapist's development are also considered.

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  4. Personal presence in client-centered therapy

    Author: 

    Barbara T. Brodley

    Abstract: 

    This paper presents two conceptions of "presence" found in Rogers' writings about client-centered therapy. The first conception is a naturalistic one emphasizing the openness and immediacy of the therapist in the relationship. The second builds on the first, adding an element of spirituality or mysticism. Expressing my rejection of Rogers' second conception, I discuss the phenomena of presence and compare Rogers' spiritual or mystical interpretations to my own naturalistic interpretations of similar experiences. Finally, I describe a small pilot study of presence that shows the concept can be meaningful to clients.

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  5. Person Centered Medical Practice

    Author: 

    Susan Bonner Schwarz

    Abstract: 

    This paper looks at the possibility of applying a person-centered approach to medical care within an HMO. It discusses the difficulties and rewards of such a practice. The author presents a further challenge to all interested in PCA to continue to influence behavior and policy within the managed care model.

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2000, Vol 7, No 1
  1. Japanese poetry and the client-centered approach

    Author: 

    Sachiko Hayashi

    Abstract: 

    A form of Japanese linked poetry style, renku, is composed by two or more people as a group. In this paper the authors illuminate the therapeutic aspect of the renku-composing process. Renku allows participants to demonstrate their distinctiveness while maintaining the sense of togetherness, or "vacuum" Personality changes take place in the "vacuum. " The significance of the renku setting and vacuum is discussed from the viewpoint of Taoistic philosophy. A renku group offers us a unique setting in which individuals can free their intuition and engage in dialogue among their whole personalities. Authors then compare a renku group with an intensive group and with Focusing. Renku is a metaphor and circumlocution of our experiencing relationships with other persons and with nature.

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  2. Construct validity of the core conditions and factor structure of the client evalulation of counselor scale

    Author: 

    Jo Cohen Hamilton

    Abstract: 

    The Client Evaluation of Counselor Scale (CECS) was developed by the author and used to obtain 135 client's evaluations of their counselor's in-session altitudes and behaviors, along with client's reported satisfaction with their counseling experience. Practicum/internship counselors (n : 35) participating in the study represented themselves as preferring a variety of theoretical orientations. For purposes of the present report, clients' evaluations of the core conditions (as defined by specific CECS items) were appraised with regard lo the variables with which they were most highly correlated. Global profiles of an understanding/empathic, an accepting/unconditionally positively regarding, and a genuine counselor were derived from statistical data on face valid and content valid items as revealed by clients' reports. These core condition profiles compare well with traditional conceptualizations of the core conditions. Twelve empirically-factored counselor styles/dimensions were identified; most included both theory specific and non-specific variables (survey items); and all correlated significantly with counseling outcome. Results are compared and contrasted with current research on counseling process and outcome, with person-centered concepts in particular addressed. The present research provides support for the views that multifarious therapist approaches are correlated with positive client outcomes; that person-centered characteristics appear to be especially strong correlates of client positive outcome; and that perhaps the most significant component of both counselor embodiment of the core conditions and client positive outcome is the client's perception of the therapist as a well-adjusted person.

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  3. The multifaceted nature of congruence within the therapeutic relationship

    Author: 

    Gill Wyatt

    Abstract: 

    The aim of this paper is to highlight the holistic nature of congruence. An overview of previous literature on congruence is offered. The metaphor of a diamond is used to symbolize the complex and multifaceted nature of congruence, where the brilliance of the diamond comes from its entirety as well as the integrity of each facet. Each facet is examined individually. The significance of looking at congruence as a whole is emphasized in relation to accessing, via the actualizing tendency, a greater healing potential and beyond - to something greater - an interconnectedness with the universe.

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  4. Natalie Rogers' Psychotherapy with Robin: Critique and Analyses

    Author: 

    Jo Cohen Hamilton

    Abstract: 

    Master's candidates in counseling psychology, along with their seminar supervisor discuss, debate, and summarize their reactions to Natalie Rogers' therapy demonstration video. Responses are candid and cover a broad range of perspectives. The reviewers address various philosophical and practice issues that converge on two central themes: that is person-centered therapy, and what is good therapy. Following the dialogue, reactions to the video and to the critique process are presented.

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1999, Vol 6, No 2
  1. Examining unconditional positive regard as the primary condition of therapeutic personality change

    Author: 

    Ken Tyler

    Abstract: 

    This paper compares Rogers' early formulation of the theory of personality and behavior (Rogers, 1951), which has become known as "The Nineteen Propositions," with his main statement of personality theory (Rogers, 1959). The theoretical developments which took place during those few intervening years, particularly in relation to unconditional positive regard, throw some light on, and support, Jerold Bozarth's reconceplualization of unconditional positive regard as "The primary condition of therapeutic personality change" (Bozarth, 1996, p.44). In this paper I want to describe those changes and demonstrate their importance to the development of person-centered theory.

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  2. Carl Rogers' 'Congruence' as an organismic; not a freudian concept

    Author: 

    Ivan Ellingham

    Abstract: 

    The principal purpose of this paper is to illumine the extent to which Carl Rogers' characterization of the central person-centered concept of congruence is couched in terms of a Cartesian-Newtonian, paradigmatic world-view mediated by the theoretical formulations of Sigmund Freud. Crucial problems in such a quasi-Freudian characterization of congruence are delineated demonstrative of a critical flaw in person-centered theory as a whole: its being a mix of concepts deriving from the discrepant Cartesian-Newtonian and organismic scientific paradigms. The re-formulation of congruence in organismic terms is envisaged as part of a general need to conceptualize all key person-centered concepts in such a fashion. 

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  3. Empathy: Is that what I hear you saying?

    Author: 

    Sharon Myers

    Abstract: 

    This paper reviews the client-centered approach to empathy with a view toward uncovering relational themes in Rogers' original conceptualization. Challenging traditional versions of empathy which reduced the concept to a special quality of the therapist or to a precise communication skill, this paper argues that empathy is an interactional variable, not well suited to theoretical definition. A model emerges for understanding empathy as on aspect of the interactional relationship which develops between counselor and client.

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  4. Humility as an important attitude in overcoming a rupture in the therapeutic relationship

    Author: 

    Ladislav Timulák

    Abstract: 

    This paper depicts the therapist's share of possible ruptures in the client-counselor relationship. It presents an attitude toward these ruptures which can facilitate the therapeutic and the client's process. It distinguishes two kinds of rupture: unspoken rupture which can be discovered by the therapist without the client's explicit pointing at it; and explicit rupture which is expressed by the client. The most important feature of the paper is the presentation of a specific therapist altitude--that of humility--which when held onto by the therapist can facilitate using ruptures for therapeutic goals. The attitude of humility towards ones own imperfections as a therapist, and towards the client's view of the therapeutic relationship and therapy is developed through description and exemplification.

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  5. Client-Centered therapy in the care of the mentally handicapped

    Author: 

    Hans Peters

    Abstract: 

    Regarding the treatment of mentally handicapped persons, three approaches toward treatment are possible. The first approach involves influencing the relationship between ward personnel and mentally handicapped persons. The second approach is the therapeutic treatment of mentally handicapped persons by means of mediation therapy, which means that the therapist is responsible for starting up, administering, revising and supervising treatment, but that the treatment itself is administered by ward personnel, parents and/or other persons. This implicitly means that, in imitation of Rogers, I consider empathic understanding and empathic responding as an attitude as well as a skill that can be learned. The third approach is treatment of the mentally handicapped person administered by the psychotherapist. In the following, I wish to elaborate on these three approaches. My work with mentally handicapped clients follows in a client-centered, as well as, a behavior-therapeutic frame of reference, and I am an advocate of a combination of methods (see e.g.., Peters, 1984, 1991, 1992 and 1999), I will hereby limit myself to the administration of client centered practice in the treatment of these persons.

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1999, Vol 6, No 1
  1. Pre-Therapy: Is it person-centered?: A reply to Jerold Bozarth

    Author: 

    Garry Prouty

    Abstract: 

    This paper presents Pre-Therapy as an evolution of Client-Centered therapy, while Pre-Symbolic Experiencing is seen as an evolution of Experiential therapy. Rogers considered Pre-Therapy to be of significance for the Client-Centered approach. Pre-Therapy emphasizes empathic contact, and is a theory of psychological contact. Pre-Therapy is not process-directive as is the case with Process-Experiential therapy, but surrenders to and follows the pre-expressive attempts of the client.

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  2. To what extent do clients discriminate among the group leader's basic therapeutic attitudes? A person-centered contribution.

    Author: 

    Leif J. Braaten

    Abstract: 

    Ever since Rogers (1957) launched his elegant and provocative model of therapeutic personality change, the main focus of researchers and clinicians has been on the therapist-offered conditions of accurate empathy, unconditional positive regard, and genuineness. Too little attention has been paid to how clients can perceive and discriminate between these conditions. In this study 1,119 client evaluations were collected from 136 participants in 16 therapy groups of 15 three hour sessions, using a self-constructed group climate questionnaire with 15 items carefully tapping the classical person-centered conditions. A varimax factor analysis revealed a rather conclusive three factors solution. The first factor, accounting for 60.0 % of the variance, was called empathic positive regard, a condition obviously integrating accurate empathy and unconditional positive regard. The second factor, accounting for 12.4 % of the variance, was labeled genuineness. And finally, the third factor, accounting for 5.8 % of the variance, was named anxiety/vulnerability.

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  3. The client-centered ecopsychologist

    Author: 

    Bernie Neville

    Abstract: 

    Client-centered therapy and ecopsychology start from very different ways of imagining the place of individuals in the world. However, in the tension between these two perspectives there is the potential for enriching both of them.

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1998, Vol 5, No 2
  1. Congruence and its relation to communication in client-centered therapy

    Author: 

    Barbara T. Brodley

    Abstract: 

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss Carl Rogers' concept of congruence and its relation to communication. In the communication context, the concept of congruence is sometimes misunderstood as simply "matching"-- matching symbolization to experience, or matching subjective symbolization to communication while its theoretical definition has been given insufficient attention. Communication in relation to congruence also has been misunderstood to involve saying what one is thinking or feeling in the moment.

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  2. Near enemies in psychotherapy

    Author: 

    Suzanne Hidore

    Abstract: 

    The core conditions stated by Carl Rogers as necessary and sufficient for constructive personality change are vulnerable to misuse even by therapists whose original purpose is of studied and pure intent. Kornfield's elucidation of the Buddhist concept of The Near Enemies is used as a perspective to understand the core conditions. Greater self-awareness of the experience of empathy and unconditional positive regard allows an opportunity for therapists to be personally congruent with the purpose of the core conditions. Attachment, pity and indifference are discussed as traps to intended outcomes in psychotherapy.

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  3. The six necessary and sufficient conditions applied to working with lesbian, gay and bisexual clients

    Author: 

    Dominic Davies

    Abstract: 

    The six necessary and sufficient conditions (Rogers, 1957) are offered as a conceptual framework for therapy with lesbian, gay, and bisexual individuals. "Cay affirmative therapy" represents a special range of psychological knowledge which challenges the traditional view, that homosexual desire and fixed homosexual orientations are pathological.

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  4. A person-centered application to test anxiety

    Author: 

    Laurie L. Silverstein

    Abstract: 

    Literature examining the treatment of test anxiety over the last few decades focuses primarily on the efficacy of cognitive and behavioral interventions (e.g., Allen, 1972; Meichenbaum, 1972, 1977). Over time, interventions have become even more symptom-specific (e.g., Broota & Sanghvi, 1994; Gosselin & Matthews, 1995). However, some researchers suggest that anxiety-focused approaches nay not improve performance, and skills acquisition and training nay not reduce anxiety (e.g., Klinger, I984; Paulman & Kennelley, I984). While some studies suggest that person-centered variables enhance therapeutic outcomes in the treatment of test anxiety, almost no literature exists comparing the efficacy of these different approaches (e.g., Ryan & Moses, 1979; Payne, 1985). A case summary describes a person-centered application to the treatment of test anxiety as a nondirective, individualized alternative to symptom-specific modalities.

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  5. Neuropsychological assessment as a means toward greater empathy and communication with brain-damaged clients

    Author: 

    Jon Rose

    Abstract: 

    Two case examples demonstrate how formal assessment of cognitive functioning can enhance and clarify empathizing with the emotions and verbal expressions of brain-injured clients. Neuropsychological Assessment, broadly defined to include information gathered from others, behavioral and systematic observation, careful listening to the patient and standardized tests, can explain how brain-injured people think. This can enhance our ability to know and reflect on what it is like to be them (empathy).

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  6. Changing chronic problem behavior in primary schools: a client-centered ecosystemic approach for teachers

    Author: 

    Ken Tyler

    Abstract: 

    In the ecosystemic approach, if something changes in the interpersonal system, the problem behavior will change. The importance of using the core conditions in implementing the ecosystemic approach was demonstrated for two types of interventions, the first based on "positive attribution;" the second based on empathic response. Ecosystemics incorporated with the person-centered approach offers a range of techniques for addressing problem behaviors in schools.

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1998, Vol 5, No 1
  1. Carl Rogers and Transpersonal Psychology

    Author: 

    John K. Wood

    Abstract: 

    The claims that Carl Rogers was what is presently understood as a "transpersonal psychologist " or that he had converted to a "transpersonal movement" by virtue of various late-in-life experiences are shown to be unwarranted.

    To understand his complex relationship with these subjects, it is noted that Rogers did not conform with much of the behavior with which they are associated. Nevertheless, he did have, from the beginning of his work in client-centered therapy, experiences which must be considered congenial with the essence of the "transpersonal."

    The purpose of this article is to recognize the distinction between outward appearance and one's legitimate inner experience and to encourage a deeper exploration of this difference.

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  2. Criteria for making empathic responses in client-centered therapy

    Author: 

    Barbara T. Brodley

    Abstract: 

    The criteria for communicating empathic understanding described in this paper are based on my work as a client-centered therapist. As my therapy evolved, I only gradually identified these criteria and recognized that they express the nondirective attitude that informs my practice. An early version of the paper was prepared for the First International Forum on the Person-Centered Approach in Mexico in 1982. An excerpt was published in the ADPCA newsletter, Renaissance, in 1984. In 1986 Carl Rogers published his article on "reflection of feelings" which gave support to my thesis that the client-centered therapist's intention in responding empathically is to verify understanding, not to manipulate the client's process nor to foster any therapist goal for the client. The fundamental nondirectiveness in client-centered work seems to be difficult for some students to understand or, perhaps, to believe. My hope that this paper will help to clarify the meaning of the nondirective attitude in empathic interaction process as well as clarify the criteria for overt empathic responding in client-centered therapy.

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  3. Special Section: Poems

    Author: 

    Thair R. Dieffenbach

    Abstract: 

    “A Plea for Understanding” by Thair R. Dieffenbach;

    “Pretense” by Nicholas Mazza, Ph.D., Florida State University

    “Haiku Poems” by Joe Utay, Eastern Kentucky University

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1997, Vol 4, No 1
  1. The primary prevention of psychosocial disorders: A person/client-centered perspective

    Author: 

    Suzanne Hidore

    Abstract: 

    Psychotherapy is the treatment for psychological disorders deriving from disturbed interpersonal relationships. The essence of psychotherapy is love, or agape. It is argued that it follows that love is the primary prevention of psychosocial disorders. Unconditional love in infancy and early childhood is necessary for the normal psychosocial development of all human beings. Steps to be taken for proactive intervention are included. Published literature is cited to support the thesis and conclusions.

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  2. Central dynamics in client-centered therapy training

    Author: 

    David Mearns

    Abstract: 

    This paper is the first of a series of publications which seek to stimulate dialogue on the issues involved in offering a professional level of training for client-centered therapists in a fashion which is both consistent with the person-centered approach as well as accountable to the professional world of therapists and clients. Rather then withdrawing from the world of mainstream education on the grounds that it is incompatible with person-centered philosophy, the writer prefers to use the person-centered approach to inform higher education. The present paper explores four training dynamics around “responsibility,” “self-acceptance,” the “individualizing of the curriculum” and the “individualization of assessment” as central to the relationship between trainees and Faculty.

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1996, Vol 3, No 1
  1. Similarities between Rousseau's discourse on the origins of inequality among men and concepts in person-centered counselling

    Author: 

    Kevin A. Curtin

    Abstract: 

    In his second discourse, Jean Jacques Rousseau claims that human beings were most happy and free in their instinctive natural state and that social institutions are responsible for the corruption of humankind. For counselors and their clients, the goal is to maximize this original human nature through person-centered psychotherapy, that encourages the concepts of self-actualization, autonomy, and empathy.

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  2. A theoretical reconceptualization of the necessary and sufficient conditions for therapeutic personality change

    Author: 

    Jerold D. Bozarth

    Abstract: 

    In this paper, Unconditional Positive Regard is presented as the primary condition of therapeutic personality change. Genuineness and Empathic Understanding are viewed as two contextual attitudes. The concept of the necessary and sufficient conditions for therapeutic personality change is reconceptualized in a way consistent with this view. The reconceptualization entails (a) genuineness being viewed as a therapist state of readiness that enables the therapist to better experience the client with empathic understanding of the client's internal frame of reference and to experience unconditional positive regard towards the client; (b) empathic understanding being viewed as the action state of the therapist in which the client is accepted as he or she is at any given moment. The understanding of the client's internal frame of reference by the therapist is viewed as the most optimal way for the client to experience unconditional positive regard; and (c) unconditional positive regard being viewed as the primary change agent in which the client's needs for positive regard and positive self regard are met and the actualizing tendency of the individual is promoted.

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  3. An inquiry into child-centered therapy

    Author: 

    Freda Doster

    Abstract: 

    This paper discusses the utilization of play therapy as an appropriate therapeutic method in the counseling of children. It identifies the theoretical basis of child-centered therapy, the attitudes necessary for the therapist, and the therapeutic conditions necessary for growth. It also outlines the limits which should be set in regards to child-centered therapy.

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1995, Vol 2, No 2
  1. Person-centered therapy: A misunderstood paradigmatic difference?

    Author: 

    Jerold D. Bozarth

    Abstract: 

    This paper focuses on several misunderstandings of the person-centered approach which criticize Rogers’s conceptualization of the necessary and sufficient conditions for therapeutic personality change (Fay & Lazarus, 1992; Norcross, 1992) and Rogers’s theory in general (Cain, 1993; Quinn, 1993). Several of their points are examined and their positions of inquiry challenged from the context of Rogers’s theory. The misunderstandings of client-centered theory and practice as interpreted from the framework of other theoretical positions raise an issue of the paradigmatic difference of person-centered therapy from other theories of therapy.

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  2. The person-centered approach: toward an understanding of its implications

    Author: 

    John Keith Wood

    Abstract: 

    The person-centered approach is not a psychology, a psychotherapy, a philosophy, a school, a movement nor many other things frequently imagined. It is merely what its name suggests, an approach. It is a psychological posture, a way of being, from which one may confront various aspects of human behavior. The best known activity it has been applied to is client-centered therapy, which is a psychotherapy, has a theory, a method and has accumulated a substantial body of research generally supporting its theoretical assertions. This article considers the same sixty years of applications of the person-centered approach to phenomena which include – as well as psychotherapy – education, encounter groups, and large groups intended to improve transnational understanding, to explore intergroup conflicts, to learn the nature of culture and its process of formation.

    Observations over the last thirty years have revealed shortcomings in the psychology of client-centered therapy, as a suitable theory for applications of the person-centered approach. A direction is indicated for the formulation of an appropriate psychology for all of the application – including client-centered therapy itself. Reflection on this discussion might also inform the practice of psychotherapy as well as suggesting “interdisciplinary” projects that would be naturally unified by the paradigm proposed.

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  3. A new explanation for the beneficial results of client centered therapy: the possibility of of a new paradigm

    Author: 

    Fred Zimring

    Abstract: 

    In this paper the usual idea that our psychological problems are caused by unknown feelings and experiencing is questioned and an alternative understanding of the reason for our problems is proposed. More specifically, Rogers’s explanation that the success of his methods occurs because of increased awareness of unknown experience is questioned. Instead, it is proposed that our problems are due to the nature of our internal framework, rather than to feelings of which we are not aware. Our problems are seen as arising when our framework incorporates the more objective standards of the world and fails to develop the more subjective aspects. How having a more subjective or objective internal world affects our experience is discussed and how the “necessary and sufficient” conditions and the “mini-culture” of client-centered therapy develops these subjective aspects is described.

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  4. Individual experiencing in person-centered community workshops: a cross-cultural study

    Author: 

    Jeanne P. Stubbs

    Abstract: 

    This study is a qualitative case study of heuristic methodology whose focus was to investigate the individual experiencing of participants of person-centered community workshops. Data was gathered through open-ended interviews with fifteen participants of these workshops from a cross-cultural sample representing nine countries. The findings supported the construct of the actualizing tendency. Other theoretical findings pertaining to the application of the person-centered approach to community groups suggest differential emphasis of the core conditions of unconditional positive regard, genuineness and empathy, non-specificity of facilitator characteristics, and support of the theoretical premise of non-directiveness. Implications of the findings of the study suggest empathy as a less important condition in the person-centered community group, first experiences in those workshops as having the most impact, and a need for further research in person-centered community workshops as related to “the forming of community.”

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  5. Emergence of theory and methodology for a human system model of positive health: an interview with Jules Seeman

    Author: 

    Kristin S. Sturdevant

    Abstract: 

    At the Annual Conference of the Association for the Development of the Person-Centered Approach in 1994, I asked Jules if I might interview him. As a member of a panel earlier in the day in which participants talked about client-centered theory early in its development, Jules spoke of a “lost piece” of his history early in development of client-centered theory. Jules also talked about his theory, a human system model of positive health. Moreover, he described the basic methodology which therapists from this theoretical perspective might enter a client’s “system” by making connection, and facilitating therapeutic growth through communication. My purpose in interviewing Jules is threefold. I would like others to hear Jules tell his story – that is, to tell how his ideas emerged, found a home in Rogerian theory, and continue to unfold. I would like to acknowledge the “lost piece” in Jules’s history. And I hope to provide others with a narrative account of the development of client-centered (now person-centered) theory and how complimentary person-centered theory is to human systems theory, for which Jules has not only a conceptual definition, but a methodology.

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1995, Vol 2, No 1
  1. The dance of empathy: empathy, diversity, and technical eclecticism

    Author: 

    Arthur C. Bohart

    Abstract: 

    An integrative model of psychotherapy is presented in which the therapist can use techniques and “interventions,” but from a fundamentally person-centered stance. It is argued that ultimately all therapy is self-help and that it is clients who heal themselves. However the therapeutic relationship is a particularly useful “self-help space” in which clients can grow. Therapy is therefore fundamentally relational, with technology second. In a relational model of therapy, empathy is important and conceived of as resonance. Appreciation of the client becomes a major modality of relating. Techniques can be offered as ways of appreciating, empathizing with, and relating to clients. Empathy and experiencing are conceived of in fundamentally aesthetic terms.

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  2. A universal system of psychotherapy

    Author: 

    C. H. Patterson

    Abstract: 

    Currently it is generally accepted that existing theories and approaches to psychotherapy developed in Western cultures, are not applicable to other cultures. A model is proposed that, while based on certain theoretical and research foundations in Western culture, also recognizes and derives from universal drives, motivations and goals of all human beings, indeed of all living organisms. It is therefore neither time nor culture bound.

    The model is developed in terms of three levels of goals: (1) the ultimate goal, common to all clients; (2) mediate goals, that allow for cultural and individual differences; and (3) the immediate goal, involving the therapy relationship. The therapist conditions necessary, and possibly sufficient, for the development of a relationship leading to the achievement of the achievement of the mediate and ultimate goals are defined.

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  3. A person-centered view of depression: Women's experiences.

    Author: 

    Charlene K. Schneider

    Abstract: 

    Openness to another’s experience is fostered by broad knowledge, not by ignorance. Diagnostic information can obscure a client’s experiences if it is taken as definitive, but it can enlarge a therapist’s repertoire of understandings if it is used tentatively. Knowledge of experiences that occur frequently among people who share a diagnosis can sensitize a therapist to experiences that a particular client may try to convey. Four women previously treated for depression were interviewed intensively in search for common experiences. Within their different personalities, backgrounds, and personal circumstances, these particular women seemed to share a constellation of emotional experiences that could be organized around their history of sexual and physical or emotional abuse.

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  4. Maintaining a person-centered approach in a highly technological society

    Author: 

    Jay T. Willis

    Abstract: 

    This paper suggests that, contrary to popular opinion, it is possible to have a “high-tech/high-touch” society. Some of the qualities of a highly technological society are discussed. An attempt is then made to demonstrate a number of compatibilities between person-centered values and the values of a highly technological society. It is suggested, we need not fear that the individual will be depersonalized or demeaned in a continually advancing technological society, but that the individual will find greater freedom of expression and individuality in this rapidly advancing technological society – perhaps greater than in any previous historical era.

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  5. We-Rhythm Therapy

    Author: 

    David J. Alpert

    Abstract: 

    The author presents a new model of psychotherapy which is in the person-centered tradition, but which is especially distinctive in its affirmation of the We-Experience (genuine mutual connectedness between the client and the psychotherapist) as the most theoretically potent component of the psychotherapeutic relationship. The author posits that a high level of psychotherapist integration can enable the psychotherapist to have sufficient sensitivity to the more and less subtle sources of information in the psychotherapeutic relationship. Then through the psychotherapist’s actions based on this sensitivity, the client may preponderantly experience this psychotherapeutic relationship as flowing, as an on-going We-Experience, rather than as being disjointed. This new psychotherapeutic model has been named “We-Rhythm Therapy.”

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1994, Vol 1, No 3
  1. To my therapist

    Author: 

    Miriam Bassuk

    Abstract: 

    To My Therapist

    You have been a patient bystander,
    witness and lantern carrier
    lighting the way.
    I saw you first and last as father
    a good rnan
    raising me up with the warmth
    of acceptance
    and the sturdy intelligence of your words.

    The message to look deeper
    at who this self is
    that I call me
    arnplifying, clarifying,
    finding the borders
    and then filling in
    the empty, often contradictory space
    inviting me to give up
    an archaic father image
    and replace it with openness
    to new information

    Celebrating rny growth
    into independence
    by sharing your truth
    and beauty of song and sound
    of adventurous trips
    stretching out your borders
    knowing your own self better
    teaching and touching

    I honor your being,
    and thank you for being there for me.

    From Your Client
    Miriam Bassuk

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  2. Editorial, Vol 1, No 3

    Author: 

    Jerold D. Bozarth

    Abstract: 

    This edition offers a range of topics relevant to the Person-Centered Approach. They range
    from comparative theoretical discussions to consideration of self inquiry to description of
    relevance of the approach to our societal systems. In addition, one article from the last issue and
    corrections on another of the articles are re-printed from the previous issue because of printing
    errors.

    It is unfortunate that several errors occurred in the last issue during the publishing stage.
    They were especially distressing to the authors in that meaning could have been misunderstood
    in some places and continuity broken in other places. Fred Zimring, Jeanne Stubbs, and I took
    special pains to review the final copy given to the printer. Nevertheless, a computer glitch on a
    new printing program resulted in missing pages and in the distorted printing of several pages.
    Hence, the publisher re-printed one article (John K. Wood's article) in this issue and printed
    corrections of another article (Barth & Sanford's article).

    As a result of these problems, a policy change has been implemented. Authors will now be
    sent the ready to press (similar to a galley) copy of their article for review. This should minimize
    the probability of such errors occurring again.

    Also, announcements will be limited to a short statement and address of contact in order to
    save page space. Related to this is a question considered at ADPCA concerning solicitation of
    advertising. It was decided to not solicit advertising at this time. Details of this possibility are
    reported in the Renaissance.

    We are still trying to offer a transcript ofa therapy interview in each issue. If you have a written
    typescript you would like to submit, please submit it along with your comments on the session.
    Other individuals may also be asked to comment upon it. In spite of the problems with the
    previous issue, I believe we are progressing with our journal.--JDB

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  3. Empathy toward client perception of therapist intent: Evaluating one's person-centeredness

    Author: 

    Jo Cohen

    Abstract: 

    Evaluating one's own person-centeredness can be facilitated by asking the question, "What is the client's perception of the therapist's intent" The present paper asserts that from a person-centered approach, the client's perceptual stance is the context for relationship development, and a context within which the therapist's response must be evaluated. Empathy with the client's phenomenal world of the therapists' intent can be a guide for evaluating therapeutic person-centeredness. To assure that the therapist manifests a trust in the client's self-actualization tendency, it is critical to assess the client's perception that this is so.

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  4. The public expression of private experience: A relativity unexplored dimension of person-centered psychology

    Author: 

    J. Guthrie Ford

    Abstract: 

    The congruence of psychological "pairs" is central to person-centered psychology. Two well-known pairs are the perceived self and ideal aspirations, and the perceived self and experiences of the organism. There is yet another pair that is relatively unexplored. One element of this pair is the private (covert) process; the other is the public (oven) process. Rogers has described the incongruence of these processes and the psychological consequences of this incongruence, My students and I have developed a way to measure public/private incongruence, documented the association between incongruence and maladjustment, and integrated public/private incongruence into person-centered theory. Should you read any further? Well, if you have ever said, "Let others know the real you," you may feel congruent and wise after reading this article.

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  5. Extending Roger's thoughts on human destructiveness

    Author: 

    J. Guthrie Ford

    Abstract: 

    Carl Rogers explicitly described children's urges to inflict pain, a male organism directing a sexual assault on young girls, and a mother's organic need to aggress against her child. In light of these recognitions of human destructiveness by Rogers, Quinn (1993) has recently challenged the commitment of person-centered psychologists to the wholly constructive actualizing tendency. Quinn (1993) has argued for destructiveness being equally "at core" with constructive organismic capacities. He has also asserted that this possibility was acknowledged, although inadvertently so, by Rogers himself, through various descriptions (admissions to?) human destructiveness. If person-centered psychology is equivocal about the inherentness of human destructiveness, then many person-centered deductions and applications become clouded. Quinn (1993) focused on client-centered therapy, arguing that the client's organismic valuing process, which may well include destructive features, has limited adaptive benefit. Although I do not find that Rogers recognized destructiveness as an inherent directionality, it is true that person-centered theory has not dealt with negative human behaviors in conceptually satisfying ways. This paper is a start toward changing that. Four explicit "cases" of human destructiveness are taken from prominent works and are explained by person-centered constructs and specific processes which Rogers saw as relevant to the actualization of destructiveness. The paper concludes with critical reflection on Quinn's (1993) developmental-interactional approach to psychotherapy, an alterative to the client-centered approach.

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  6. A discussion of contributions by Gregory Bateson and Carl Rogers via an analysis of two seminal papers

    Author: 

    Patric Pentony

    Abstract: 

    The paper begins with an examination of the logical premises on which Gregory Bateson and his associates based their "Double Bind" hypothesis of the etiology of schizophrenia. It goes on to demonstrate that in the specification of the hypothesis, the authors failed to adhere strictly to these premises with the result that confusion arose as to what was meant by a "double bind." Having located the source of confusion the paper then takes up Ackerman's point that the classical paradoxes, in which an incongruity in messages at different levels is buried in a single statement, is not an appropriate model for understanding interactional sequences. His alternative showing how classificatory type messages buried in interactional sequences can result in entangled communication is developed both to indicate the core of value in the "double bind" approach and to outline the wider implications of the issues involved. These wider implications are then brought out in an analysis of a logical defect in Carl Rogers's paper on "The Necessary and Sufficient Conditions for Therapeutic Personality Change." Finally it is shown that the "Reflection of Feeling Response" developed by Rogers and his students utilizes different levels of communication in achieving its effects.

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  7. Notes on the relationship between person-centered theory and the emerging field of health psychology: Indications and suggestions for theory, research, and practice

    Author: 

    Donald G. Tritt

    Abstract: 

    Notes on the relationship between person-centered theory and the emerging field of health psychology: Indications and suggestions for theory, research, and practice given at the annual meeting of The Association for Development of the Person-Centered Approach, May 27-31, 1993, Maryville College, Maryville, TN.

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  8. Transcript of therapy session by Douglas Bower

    Author: 

    Douglas Bower

    Abstract: 

    It is our intention to include a demonstration transcript each issue. The transcript for this
    issue is provided by Doug Bower who has available several sessions of dffirent therapists and
    clients. Doug explains this in his introduction. The client and therapist gave permission to
    publish the transcript anonymously. They offer brief comments on the session. JDB

    The research project from which this transcript was taken was part of the requirements for a
    degree in pastoral counseling. I wanted to know what client-centered therapy looked like ard to
    develop a sense of what it meant to do therapy.

    The purpose of the study was to accomplish the following subjective goals for myself: I ) To
    better understand the person-centered theory of Carl Rogers; 2) To be able to articulate my
    understanding of the theory; 3) To begin to develop expertise in the utilization of the person-centered
    approach; and 4) To be able to draw implications from the person- centered theory for the
    ministry of pastoral counseling.

    Those therapists who were asked to participate had associated with Rogers, regarded themselves
    as being person- centered practitioners, and were recognized by others as advocates of the
    person-centered approach.

    We asked: 1) for a tape of a session which the therapist viewed as typical of his or her work;
    2) for the therapist to complete a brief questionnaire; 3) that the client also fill out a brief
    questionnaire; and 4) that the client complete an abridged form of the Barrett Lennard Relationship
    Inventory.

    Six tapes were received with the accompanying materials. That material was written up and
    the verbatim therapy transcript in this paper came from that study.

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  9. Corrections. Human science and the person-centered approach: An inquiry into the inner process of significant change within individuals

    Author: 

    Robert Barth

    Abstract: 

    The following materials are corrections from the last issue by the publisher.

    These corrections consist of the identification and correction of several pages from the Barth & Sanford article,

    Human Science and the Person-Centered Approach: An Inquiry into the Inner Process of Significant Change within Individuals. The printing skipped several pages of the final diskette copy and incorrect insertions of those pages may have distracted from the meaning and clarity of the article. Readers will be able to substitute these corrections in the original article.

    John K. Wood's article, The Person-Centered Approach's Greatest Weakness: Not Using its Strength, is repeated in its entirety. One page was left out and other pages substituted during the printing. This resulted in considerable confusion to some readers.

    Several other articles also had their content distracted from when quotes were not indented and several other format problems occurred.

    The editors and publisher apologize for these problems. Final galley proofing by authors and closer attention to the technology should eliminate such errors in the future.

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  10. Corrections. The person-centered approach's greatest weakness: not using its strength.

    Author: 

    John Keith Wood

    Abstract: 

    The following materials are corrections from the last issue by the publisher.

    These corrections consist of the identification and correction of several pages from the Barth & Sanford article,

    Human Science and the Person-Centered Approach: An Inquiry into the Inner Process of Significant Change within Individuals. The printing skipped several pages of the final diskette copy and incorrect insertions of those pages may have distracted from the meaning and clarity of the article. Readers will be able to substitute these corrections in the original article.

    John K. Wood's article, The Person-Centered Approach's Greatest Weakness: Not Using its Strength, is repeated in its entirety. One page was left out and other pages substituted during the printing. This resulted in considerable confusion to some readers.

    Several other articles also had their content distracted from when quotes were not indented and several other format problems occurred.

    The editors and publisher apologize for these problems. Final galley proofing by authors and closer attention to the technology should eliminate such errors in the future.

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