ADPCA Journal

The Person-Centered Journal

The Person-Centered Journal (PCJ) is the oldest continuously running person-centered peer reviewed publication in English. It is sponsored by the Association for the Development of the Person-Centered Approach (ADPCA) to promote and disseminate scholarly thinking about person-centered principles, practices, and philosophy.

The Journal is edited by Joanne Cohen with Marge Witty as associate editor. They may be contacted via pcj@adpca.org. The book reviews are edited by Ross Balcom, who may be contacted at pcjbookreview@adpca.org. Authors interested in submitting manuscripts are welcome to email article submissions to pcj@adpca.org and book review submissions to pcjbookreview@adpca.org.

A limited number of advertisements may be made in the Journal at affordable rates. For further information, you may also contact the editors at the above address. Please specify whether your business is non-profit.

PCJ is published as a double issue per year. Membership inquiries may be sent to Jessica Shipman, ADPCA Membership Coordinator, at membership@adpca.org. All materials contained in the Journal are the property of the ADPCA. If you are interested in reproducing articles, please send your requests to Joanne and Marge.

We welcome enquiries and hope The Person-Centered Journal engages you!

PCJ Archive

The PCJ Archive is an open-access resource that ADPCA is proud to offer worldwide.

The Archive comprises free downloadable copies of the Person-Centered Journal. An index to volumes 1 through 15 was published in 2008, Volume 15.

1994, Vol 1, No 3
  1. To my therapist

    Author: 

    Miriam Bassuk

    Abstract: 

    To My Therapist

    You have been a patient bystander,
    witness and lantern carrier
    lighting the way.
    I saw you first and last as father
    a good rnan
    raising me up with the warmth
    of acceptance
    and the sturdy intelligence of your words.

    The message to look deeper
    at who this self is
    that I call me
    arnplifying, clarifying,
    finding the borders
    and then filling in
    the empty, often contradictory space
    inviting me to give up
    an archaic father image
    and replace it with openness
    to new information

    Celebrating rny growth
    into independence
    by sharing your truth
    and beauty of song and sound
    of adventurous trips
    stretching out your borders
    knowing your own self better
    teaching and touching

    I honor your being,
    and thank you for being there for me.

    From Your Client
    Miriam Bassuk

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  2. Editorial, Vol 1, No 3

    Author: 

    Jerold D. Bozarth

    Abstract: 

    This edition offers a range of topics relevant to the Person-Centered Approach. They range
    from comparative theoretical discussions to consideration of self inquiry to description of
    relevance of the approach to our societal systems. In addition, one article from the last issue and
    corrections on another of the articles are re-printed from the previous issue because of printing
    errors.

    It is unfortunate that several errors occurred in the last issue during the publishing stage.
    They were especially distressing to the authors in that meaning could have been misunderstood
    in some places and continuity broken in other places. Fred Zimring, Jeanne Stubbs, and I took
    special pains to review the final copy given to the printer. Nevertheless, a computer glitch on a
    new printing program resulted in missing pages and in the distorted printing of several pages.
    Hence, the publisher re-printed one article (John K. Wood's article) in this issue and printed
    corrections of another article (Barth & Sanford's article).

    As a result of these problems, a policy change has been implemented. Authors will now be
    sent the ready to press (similar to a galley) copy of their article for review. This should minimize
    the probability of such errors occurring again.

    Also, announcements will be limited to a short statement and address of contact in order to
    save page space. Related to this is a question considered at ADPCA concerning solicitation of
    advertising. It was decided to not solicit advertising at this time. Details of this possibility are
    reported in the Renaissance.

    We are still trying to offer a transcript ofa therapy interview in each issue. If you have a written
    typescript you would like to submit, please submit it along with your comments on the session.
    Other individuals may also be asked to comment upon it. In spite of the problems with the
    previous issue, I believe we are progressing with our journal.--JDB

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  3. Empathy toward client perception of therapist intent: Evaluating one's person-centeredness

    Author: 

    Jo Cohen

    Abstract: 

    Evaluating one's own person-centeredness can be facilitated by asking the question, "What is the client's perception of the therapist's intent" The present paper asserts that from a person-centered approach, the client's perceptual stance is the context for relationship development, and a context within which the therapist's response must be evaluated. Empathy with the client's phenomenal world of the therapists' intent can be a guide for evaluating therapeutic person-centeredness. To assure that the therapist manifests a trust in the client's self-actualization tendency, it is critical to assess the client's perception that this is so.

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  4. The public expression of private experience: A relativity unexplored dimension of person-centered psychology

    Author: 

    J. Guthrie Ford

    Abstract: 

    The congruence of psychological "pairs" is central to person-centered psychology. Two well-known pairs are the perceived self and ideal aspirations, and the perceived self and experiences of the organism. There is yet another pair that is relatively unexplored. One element of this pair is the private (covert) process; the other is the public (oven) process. Rogers has described the incongruence of these processes and the psychological consequences of this incongruence, My students and I have developed a way to measure public/private incongruence, documented the association between incongruence and maladjustment, and integrated public/private incongruence into person-centered theory. Should you read any further? Well, if you have ever said, "Let others know the real you," you may feel congruent and wise after reading this article.

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  5. Extending Roger's thoughts on human destructiveness

    Author: 

    J. Guthrie Ford

    Abstract: 

    Carl Rogers explicitly described children's urges to inflict pain, a male organism directing a sexual assault on young girls, and a mother's organic need to aggress against her child. In light of these recognitions of human destructiveness by Rogers, Quinn (1993) has recently challenged the commitment of person-centered psychologists to the wholly constructive actualizing tendency. Quinn (1993) has argued for destructiveness being equally "at core" with constructive organismic capacities. He has also asserted that this possibility was acknowledged, although inadvertently so, by Rogers himself, through various descriptions (admissions to?) human destructiveness. If person-centered psychology is equivocal about the inherentness of human destructiveness, then many person-centered deductions and applications become clouded. Quinn (1993) focused on client-centered therapy, arguing that the client's organismic valuing process, which may well include destructive features, has limited adaptive benefit. Although I do not find that Rogers recognized destructiveness as an inherent directionality, it is true that person-centered theory has not dealt with negative human behaviors in conceptually satisfying ways. This paper is a start toward changing that. Four explicit "cases" of human destructiveness are taken from prominent works and are explained by person-centered constructs and specific processes which Rogers saw as relevant to the actualization of destructiveness. The paper concludes with critical reflection on Quinn's (1993) developmental-interactional approach to psychotherapy, an alterative to the client-centered approach.

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  6. A discussion of contributions by Gregory Bateson and Carl Rogers via an analysis of two seminal papers

    Author: 

    Patric Pentony

    Abstract: 

    The paper begins with an examination of the logical premises on which Gregory Bateson and his associates based their "Double Bind" hypothesis of the etiology of schizophrenia. It goes on to demonstrate that in the specification of the hypothesis, the authors failed to adhere strictly to these premises with the result that confusion arose as to what was meant by a "double bind." Having located the source of confusion the paper then takes up Ackerman's point that the classical paradoxes, in which an incongruity in messages at different levels is buried in a single statement, is not an appropriate model for understanding interactional sequences. His alternative showing how classificatory type messages buried in interactional sequences can result in entangled communication is developed both to indicate the core of value in the "double bind" approach and to outline the wider implications of the issues involved. These wider implications are then brought out in an analysis of a logical defect in Carl Rogers's paper on "The Necessary and Sufficient Conditions for Therapeutic Personality Change." Finally it is shown that the "Reflection of Feeling Response" developed by Rogers and his students utilizes different levels of communication in achieving its effects.

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  7. Notes on the relationship between person-centered theory and the emerging field of health psychology: Indications and suggestions for theory, research, and practice

    Author: 

    Donald G. Tritt

    Abstract: 

    Notes on the relationship between person-centered theory and the emerging field of health psychology: Indications and suggestions for theory, research, and practice given at the annual meeting of The Association for Development of the Person-Centered Approach, May 27-31, 1993, Maryville College, Maryville, TN.

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  8. Transcript of therapy session by Douglas Bower

    Author: 

    Douglas Bower

    Abstract: 

    It is our intention to include a demonstration transcript each issue. The transcript for this
    issue is provided by Doug Bower who has available several sessions of dffirent therapists and
    clients. Doug explains this in his introduction. The client and therapist gave permission to
    publish the transcript anonymously. They offer brief comments on the session. JDB

    The research project from which this transcript was taken was part of the requirements for a
    degree in pastoral counseling. I wanted to know what client-centered therapy looked like ard to
    develop a sense of what it meant to do therapy.

    The purpose of the study was to accomplish the following subjective goals for myself: I ) To
    better understand the person-centered theory of Carl Rogers; 2) To be able to articulate my
    understanding of the theory; 3) To begin to develop expertise in the utilization of the person-centered
    approach; and 4) To be able to draw implications from the person- centered theory for the
    ministry of pastoral counseling.

    Those therapists who were asked to participate had associated with Rogers, regarded themselves
    as being person- centered practitioners, and were recognized by others as advocates of the
    person-centered approach.

    We asked: 1) for a tape of a session which the therapist viewed as typical of his or her work;
    2) for the therapist to complete a brief questionnaire; 3) that the client also fill out a brief
    questionnaire; and 4) that the client complete an abridged form of the Barrett Lennard Relationship
    Inventory.

    Six tapes were received with the accompanying materials. That material was written up and
    the verbatim therapy transcript in this paper came from that study.

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  9. Corrections. Human science and the person-centered approach: An inquiry into the inner process of significant change within individuals

    Author: 

    Robert Barth

    Abstract: 

    The following materials are corrections from the last issue by the publisher.

    These corrections consist of the identification and correction of several pages from the Barth & Sanford article,

    Human Science and the Person-Centered Approach: An Inquiry into the Inner Process of Significant Change within Individuals. The printing skipped several pages of the final diskette copy and incorrect insertions of those pages may have distracted from the meaning and clarity of the article. Readers will be able to substitute these corrections in the original article.

    John K. Wood's article, The Person-Centered Approach's Greatest Weakness: Not Using its Strength, is repeated in its entirety. One page was left out and other pages substituted during the printing. This resulted in considerable confusion to some readers.

    Several other articles also had their content distracted from when quotes were not indented and several other format problems occurred.

    The editors and publisher apologize for these problems. Final galley proofing by authors and closer attention to the technology should eliminate such errors in the future.

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  10. Corrections. The person-centered approach's greatest weakness: not using its strength.

    Author: 

    John Keith Wood

    Abstract: 

    The following materials are corrections from the last issue by the publisher.

    These corrections consist of the identification and correction of several pages from the Barth & Sanford article,

    Human Science and the Person-Centered Approach: An Inquiry into the Inner Process of Significant Change within Individuals. The printing skipped several pages of the final diskette copy and incorrect insertions of those pages may have distracted from the meaning and clarity of the article. Readers will be able to substitute these corrections in the original article.

    John K. Wood's article, The Person-Centered Approach's Greatest Weakness: Not Using its Strength, is repeated in its entirety. One page was left out and other pages substituted during the printing. This resulted in considerable confusion to some readers.

    Several other articles also had their content distracted from when quotes were not indented and several other format problems occurred.

    The editors and publisher apologize for these problems. Final galley proofing by authors and closer attention to the technology should eliminate such errors in the future.

    Download: 

1994, Vol 1, No 2
  1. Conceptual Analysis of Client and Counselor Activity in Client-Centered Therapy

    Author: 

    Seeman, Julius

    Abstract: 

    Introduction note from J.S.:

    I wrote the paper in 1951 (my first venture into stating my understanding of client-centered therapy) because I had just taken the post of Research Coordinator at the University of Chicago Counseling Center and felt the need to articulate my current view of CCT. I hope that it may be of some interest as an early view of CCT as I understood it.

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  2. The Collaborative Relationship in Psychotherapy

    Author: 

    Natiello, Peggy

    Abstract: 

    There is a considerable difference between the values that underlie the practice of a psychotherapy that is based on collaboration between client and therapist and one that depends on the expertise and authority of the therapist. This paper explores the collaborative therapeutic relationship within client-centered therapy and focuses particularly on the values and principles that inform the practice of collaborative psychotherapy. Examples from a client-centered practice are introduced to illuminate the informing values and principles that are described.

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  3. Human Science and the Person-Centered Approach: An Inquiry into the Inner Process of Sinificant Change within Individuals

    Author: 

    Barth, Robert and Sanford, Ruth

    Abstract: 

    CORRECTIONS to this article were published in The Person-Centered Journal, Vol 1, No 3, 1994

    ABSTRACT. The purpose of this study was: (l) to develop a research model which would demonstrate that the core conditions of therapeutic personality change postulated by Carl R' Rogers also provide o cogent methodology for doing qualitative research; and (2) to conduct an inquiry into the inner process of significant change within individuals, as such change occurred in the ordinary course of their lives. The model involves a deep personal involvement on the part of the researcher, a commitment to entering into the experience of each participant as if it were the researcher's own, and an acceptance of the participants involved as the authorities on their own experiencing of self. The data were gathered over a year and a half by conducting in-depth interviews during which the core conditions of the person-centered approach were offered to the participants. Two ways in which significant change comes about were identified: one was a joyful change which leads to an increase in self-awareness. The other was a tumultuous, painful experience involving deep personal struggle in which an increase in self-awareness leads to significant change. Regarding tumultuous change, ten characteristics emerged. Among them were: having a crisis, becoming self-aware, being persistent, breaking free, and reaching a critical point. The nature of tumultuous change is described as an outgoing, irreversible process characterized by an "essential tension" involving opponent forces which create a dynamic and continually developing whole. There are discussions about how the findings illustrate certain person-centered concepts and how the research was of distinct value to the participants -- most specifically, how the method itself facilitated the process of change by becoming an active part of their living experiences. The role of the researchers as participants and the participants as researchers is also discussed.

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  4. Some Observations of Carl Rogers' Behavior in Therapy Interviews

    Author: 

    Brodley, Barbara Temaner

    Abstract: 

    Carl Rogers' psychotherapy behavior, recorded on film, video, audiotape and in verbatim transcripts, is a rich source for learning about psychotherapy in general and specifically about the client/person-centered approach that Rogers developed (Rogers, 1957;1959;1980;1986a).My interest in Rogers' own therapy behavior -- how it relates to his theory and development as a therapist -- has led me to examine, thus far, 34 sessions, consisting of 1,930 responses Rogers made in reaction to his clients, conducted over a 46 year time span -- from 1940 through 1986.

    This report is primarily based on a system for rating client/person-centered therapy sessions which I developed with Anne Brody (Brodley & Brody, 1990; Brody, 1991; Brodley & Brody,1993). I shall summarize the findings from the total sample of 1,930 responses, show comparisons between Rogers' behavior in the frames of three consecutive time spans over the 46 year period of the 34 sessions, and relate the findings to Rogers' theoretical writings.

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  5. Qualities or Dimensions of Experiencing and Their Change.

    Author: 

    Gendlin, Eugene and Zimring, Fred

    Abstract: 

    Introductory note from F. Z.: This paper contains the first public discussion of experiencing. It was presented in a "Crazy Ideas" seminar talk by Carl in which Gene and I were graduate students, and then appeared in the Counseling Center Discussion Papers(Vol 1 no. 3) in 1955. What follows is the paper as originally written except for a few spelling corrections, completion of incomplete sentences and the occasional remark added to help the reader understand terms that were current in the 1950s.

     

     

     

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  6. Two Therapists and a Client

    Author: 

    Ellis, June and Zimring, Fred

    Abstract: 

    This article contains the typescripts of short interviews by two therapists with the same client. Because eight years intervened between the interviews, these typescripts permit a glimpse of the changes in the client over the period, as well as allowing for the comparison of the style and effect of two client-centered therapists.

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1992, Vol 1, No 1
  1. The Person Behind the Psychodiagnosis

    Author: 

    Boy, Angelo

    Abstract: 

    Absract

    Psychodiagnosis procedures have become more routinized in the practice of psychotherapy. This article looks at the person who performs a psychodiagnosis and identifies areas which have the potential to contaminate the psychodiagnostician's objectivity..The areas identified are psychodiagnostician's  values,  theoretical orientation, ability to judge, cultural influences, unconscious lures, and ethical considerations..

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  2. Coterminous Intermingling of Doing and Being in Person-Centered Therapy

    Author: 

    Bozarth, Jerold D.

    Abstract: 

    Abstract

    This paper examines the roles of "being" and "doing" in person-centered therapy. The examination consists of (1) reconsideration of the basic principles of the person-centered approach espoused by the late Carl R. Rogers, (2) examination of Rogers' responses to his clients, and (3) consideration of some of the reported research findings concerning the function of the person-centered therapist.

     

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  3. Individual Freeing in a Person-Centered Workshop.pdf

    Author: 

    Stubbs, Jeanne P.

    Abstract: 

    Abstract

    This report is a heuristic case study of individual experiencing at a person-centered community workshop in Pezinok, Czechoslovakia during the week of April 13-20, 1991. The purpose of my study is to recreate the phenomenon of each participant's "symbolic growth experience" (Frick, 1983) defined as "a conscious perception of the symbolic-metaphorical dimension of immediate experience leading to heightened awareness, the creation of meaning, and personal growth (p. 68).  The creation of each unique experience emerged from heuristic analysis of interviews of five of the participants in the workshop and immersion of the researcher in the workshop as a participant. The emergent depictions, portraits, and a synthesized integration of the data produced a dynamic flowing between three categories: (1) the individual factors of personal influencing and societal influencing; (2) the group factors of influencing of training and group interacting; and (3) group processing depicted as "struggling," "organizing," and "dividing." These three categories are interactive with each category flowing into the core category of "freeing." The findings of this study are reminiscent of a previous finding of a qualitative study by Frick (1983). Emerging from his study was a symbolic growth experience defined as a "freeing power" of experiencing "self-acceptance", "self affirmation", "congruency", and "increasing trust". The re-creation of the individual experiences of the researcher and the co-researchers resulted in a synthesized creation of the phenomenon of individual "freeing" as experienced in the person-centered community workshop.

     

     

     

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  4. A Comparison of American and Chinese Counseling Students' Perceptions of Counseling

    Author: 

    Page, Richard C. and Cheng, Hsiao-Ping

    Abstract: 

    Abstract

    This study assessed the differences between the ways that counseling students in two different countries, Taiwan and the United States, perceived counseling. The evaluative and potency scales of a semantic differential were used to compare the attitudes of these students related to counseling and certain counseling related variables. One finding of this study was that the Chinese students evaluated counseling, group counseling and counselors more positively than the American students while the American students rated the potency of all of these concepts higher than the Chinese students.

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